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Chemistry 1 VCE Units 1 and 2 & eBookPLUS + StudyOn VCE Chemistry Units 1 and 2

Chemistry 1 VCE Units 1 and 2 & eBookPLUS + StudyOn VCE Chemistry Units 1 and 2
Title information
Author/s
Taylor
ISBN13 9780730321415
Pub date October 2015
Pages 424
RRP $94.95
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Chemistry 1 VCE Units 1 and 2 with eBookPLUS and studyON VCE Chemistry Units 1 and 2 provides comprehensive coverage of the new VCE Study Design for 2016-2021. It includes Jacaranda’s unique exam preparation tool, studyON, which has been fully integrated with the text to maximise every student’s opportunity for exam success.

Features and benefits

• New HTML5 interactivities and videos are available. These are designed to engage, excite and enhance understanding by bringing difficult concepts to life.
• The theory is written by highly experienced and successful teachers with a proven and fundamental understanding of how students learn and succeed in exams.
• Sample problems throughout the chapter to improve student understanding by stepping through worked solutions.
• Revision questions throughout the chapter check and challenge students understanding.
• A wide range of graded end-of-chapter questions and chapter reviews.
studyON VCE Chemistry 1 and 2 is fully integrated with the student text. studyON is Jacaranda’s unique study, revision and exam preparation tool.

Students can rely on Jacaranda’s dedicated customer service and support.

This resource is a hard-copy student text that includes the eBookPLUS and studyON VCE Chemistry Units 1 and 2.



studyON for Units 1 and 2 is a comprehensive study, revision and exam preparation tool that delivers proven learning outcomes.

Features and benefits

Sit exams: VCAA exam-style questions along with marking guides. Students receive instant feedback and can track their results at a concept, topic or whole-course level.
Concepts: Concept summary screens provide concise, in-depth explanations supported by relevant examples.
Read more: Hyperlinks direct students to more information in the Jacaranda eBookPLUS.

How to use this book viii

About eBookPLUS and studyON x

Acknowledgements xi

UNIT 1 Area of study 1

Chapter 1 Atomic structure 2

Atoms 3 The structure of atoms 3

A matter of size 5

Responsible use of nanotechnology 9

Representing atoms 9

Isotopes 10

Exciting electrons 11

Bohr’s energy levels 12

Electron configuration 13

Erwin Schrödinger — the quantum-mechanical model of an atom 15

Electron configuration 17

Chromium and copper — atypical electron configurations 19

Chapter review 21

Chapter 2 The periodic table 25

Classification of the elements 26

Dmitri Mendeleev 27

Organisation of the periodic table 28

Periods and groups in the periodic table 29

Electron configuration and blocks of elements in the periodic table 29

Metals and non-metals in the periodic table 32

Patterns in the periodic table 33

Periodic trends in atomic size 33

Periodic trends in ionisation energy 34

Periodic trends in electronegativity 35

Periodic trends in metallic characteristics 36

Periodic trends in oxidising and reducing strength 37

Chapter review 38

Chapter 3 Ionic bonding 42

Introducing chemical bonds 43

Electron configuration and stability 43

Types of chemical bond 44

From atoms to ions 44

Ionic bonding 47

Structure and properties of ionic substances 49

Ionic lattices 49

Connecting properties of ionic compounds to structure 51

Naming ionic compounds 52

Formulas of binary ionic compounds 53

Ions of variable charge 55

Polyatomic ions 56

Uses of ionic compounds 58

Why do athletes take sports drinks? 58

Hydrated ionic compounds 59

Growing ionic crystals 60

Chapter review 61

Chapter 4 Metallic bonding 65

Metals 66

Properties of metals 66

Structure of metals 66

Metallic properties and lattice structure 68

Alloys 69

Specific properties and uses of s-block metals 73

Specific properties and uses of p-block metals 74

Specific properties and uses of d-block elements 74

Other models that explain metallic properties 76

Modifying metals 77

Modifying a metal by work hardening 77

Modifying a metal using heat 77

Coating metals 78

Surface protection 78

Reactivity of metals 79

Reactivity of metals and the periodic table 80

Metallic nanomaterials 80

Connecting chemistry to society 82

Titanium bicycles — a material advantage? 82

Extraction of metals 83

Extraction of iron 83

Impacts of iron production on society, the economy and the environment 84

Chapter review 86

Chapter 5 Quantifying chemistry 91

Measuring atoms 92

Measuring masses of atoms 92

Relative atomic mass 93

Counting atoms 94

The mole concept 94

Molar mass (M) 95

Compounds and molar mass 95

Changing moles to numbers of particles 96

Changing mass to moles and moles to mass 98

Percentage composition 100

Calculating percentage composition of hydrated compounds 101

Empirical formulas 102

Molecular formulas 104

Chapter review 106

Area of study 2

Chapter 6 Covalent bonding 110

Introducing covalent bonds 111

Covalent molecular substances 111

A theory for the structure of covalent molecular substances 111

The molecule 111

What is covalent bonding? 112

Electron dot diagrams 113

Electron dot diagrams for atoms 113

Electron dot diagrams for molecular elements 115

Electron dot diagrams for molecular compounds 116

Molecular models 117

Predicting molecular shape 118

Naming covalent compounds 120

Molecular elements 120

Molecular compounds 120

Electronegativity 121

Non-polar and polar covalent bonds 122

Non-polar and polar molecules 123

Intermolecular attractions 124

Dispersion forces 125

Dipole–dipole interactions 126

Hydrogen bonding 126

Effects of hydrogen bonding on the properties of water 127

Properties of molecular substances in relation to structure 128

Chapter review 130

Chapter 7 Networks and nanomaterials 135

Carbon 136

Same but different 136

Covalent network lattices 136

Covalent layer lattices 138

Fullerenes 139

Comparing structures 141

Bonding and modelling 141

Bonding 141

Lattice structures 142

Identifying the bonding in different substances 143

Properties 143

Composition 144

Chapter review 146

Chapter 8 Organic chemistry 152

Organic chemistry 153

What are organic compounds? 153

Hydrocarbons 154

Properties of hydrocarbons 154

Reactions of alkanes 156

Structural isomers 156

The alkenes 157

Reactions 157

The alkynes 158

Reactions 158

Cyclic hydrocarbons 158

Naming organic substances 159

Rules for naming hydrocarbons 160

Condensed formulas 162

Functional groups 162

Alcohols 162

Carboxylic acids 163

Where do hydrocarbons come from? 166

Petroleum 166

Refining crude oil 166

Cracking 168

Chapter review 170

Chapter 9 Polymers 175

Polymers 176

The first polymers 176

What is a polymer? 177

Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers 177

Polymer manufacture 177

Addition polymerisation 178

Changing the properties of linear polymers 179

Extent of branching 180

Arrangement of side branches in linear polymers 181

Degree of crystallinity 182

Length of polymer chains 182

Addition of plasticisers 182

Additives 183

Commonly used polymers 183

Addition polymers 183

Rubber 183

Polymer selection 185

Advantages and disadvantages of using polymers 185

Recycling 186

Chapter review 190

Area of study 3

Chapter 10 Investigating and reporting 194

Research investigations 195

Planning 195

Presentation of findings 196

Practical investigations 196

Procedure 197

Writing your report 197

General safety rules 198

Risk assessments 198

Working with figures 199

Scientific notation 199

Significant figures 200

How do we count significant figures? 201

Significant figures and calculations 201

Errors and uncertainties 202

Effective study techniques to improve your results 203

The exam 204

Using reading time effectively 204

Getting the best results in writing time 204

Calculations 204

UNIT 2 Area of study 1

Chapter 11 Connecting chemical reactions and equations 206

Chemical changes 207

Chemical equations 207

Balancing chemical equations 209

Rules for balancing equations 210

Types of chemical reaction 211

Precipitation reactions 211

Acid–base and neutralisation reactions 213

Combustion reactions 214

Chemical reactions — by patterns 215

Chapter review 216

Chapter 12 Properties of water 219

Water — the life force 220

The physical properties of water 220

Latent heat 220

Specific heat capacity 222

Density 222

Electrical conductivity 224

Hydrogen bonding and the properties of water 224

Effects of hydrogen bonding on the properties of water 225

Water as a solvent 226

Solubility 226

Solubility of gases in water 227

Using water as a solvent 228

Mixing solutions 228

Precipitation reactions 229

Rules for solubility 230

Ionic equations 231

Writing ionic equations for precipitation reactions 231

Chapter review 233

Chapter 13 Reactions in water 237

Two new groups of reactions 238

Introducing acids and bases 238

Safety with acids and bases 238

The properties of acids 239

Reactions of acids 239

The properties of bases 240

The Brønsted–Lowry theory of acids and bases 241

Ionisation and the production of the hydronium ion 242

Hydrolysis 242

Dissociation of bases 242

Neutralisation 243

Acid–base terms 244

Conjugate acid–base pairs 244

Polyprotic acids 244

Amphiprotic substances and ampholytes 244

Strengths of acids and bases 246

Strength versus concentration 248

The pH scale 248

Definition of pH 250

pH values of strong acids and bases 250

Dilution and pH 251

Relative strengths of acids and bases and pH 252

Measuring pH 253

Indicators 253

The pH meter 254

When acids cause trouble 255

Acid rain 255

Ocean acidification 256

Introducing redox reactions 256

What is oxidation–reduction? 257

Oxidants and reductants 258

An electron transfer view 258

Half-equations 260

Writing balanced half-equations for ions in aqueous solution 261

Summary of steps for balancing half-equations 263

The reactivity of metals 264

Corrosion 266

The wet corrosion of iron — an electrochemical process 266

Adverse effects of corrosion 268

Corrosion protection 268

Chapter review 271

Area of study 2

Chapter 14 Measuring solubility and concentration 280

Using water 281

Solubility of solids in water 282

Solubility curves 283

Crystallisation 284

Solubility of liquids and gases 286

The concentration of substances 286

Ways of expressing concentration 287

A special unit of concentration 292

The concentration of water 293

Calculating the concentration of ions in solution 293

Environmental issues 295

Micro-organisms 296

Eutrophication 296

Heavy metals 297

Water for drinking 297

Methods of desalination 298

Chapter review 301

Chapter 15 Analysing water for salts 305

What is chemical analysis? 306

Qualitative analysis 306

Quantitative analysis 306

Methods of chemical analysis 307

Deciding on an analytical method 307

Analysing water 308

Sources of salts in water 308

Sources of contaminants in water 310

Water sampling protocols 312

A closer look at analytical methods 312

Electrical conductivity 313

Colorimetry 313

UV–visible spectroscopy 315

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) 315

Gravimetric analysis 317

Stoichiometry—calculations using balanced equations 318

What a balanced chemical equation tells us 318

What a chemical equation does not tell us 319

Mass–mass stoichiometry 320

Mass–concentration stoichiometry 323

Gravimetric analysis 325

Analysing for water content 326

Extending the gravimetric method 326

Examining sources of error 329

Chapter review 330

Chapter 16 Analysing water for organic compounds 338

Organic compounds in the environment 339

Some organic chemistry revisited 339

Naming 339

Solubility in water 339

What are organic compounds used for? 340

Persistent organic pollutants 340

How do organic contaminants enter water? 342

Analysing for organic substances 343

Principles of chromatography 343

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) 344

Interpreting the results from HPLC 345

HPLC at work 347

Oil spills 349

Effects of a marine oil spill 350

How are oil spills treated? 351

Chapter review 352

Chapter 17 Analysing water for acids and bases 357

Isn’t water neutral? 358

How is water made acidic? 358

How is water made basic? 358

Sources of acids and bases found in water 359

Reasons for analysing 360

Analysing for acids and bases 361

Solution stoichiometry 361

Dilution 362

Acid–base titrations 364

Standard solutions 367

Volumetric techniques 367

The pipette 367

The burette 368

Volumetric flasks 368

Indicators 369

Total alkalinity 370

Examining sources of error 371

Chapter review 372

Practical investigations ONLINE ONLY 376

Answers 377

Glossary 399

Index 404

Periodic table of the elements 410

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