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# Physics 1 VCE Units 1 and 2 & eBookPLUS + StudyOn VCE Physics Units 1 and 2

Author/s O'keeffe 9780730321484 October 2015 368 \$94.95

Physics 1 VCE Units 1 and 2 provides comprehensive coverage of the new VCE Study Design for 2016-2021. It includes Jacaranda’s unique exam preparation tool, studyON, which has been fully integrated with the text to maximise every student’s opportunity for exam success.

Features and benefits

• New HTML5 interactivities and videos are available. These are designed to engage, excite and enhance understanding by bringing difficult concepts to life.
• The theory is written by highly experienced and successful teachers with a proven and fundamental understanding of how students learn and succeed in exams.
• Sample problems throughout the chapter to improve student understanding by stepping through worked solutions.
• Revision questions throughout the chapter check and challenge students understanding.
• A wide range of graded end-of-chapter questions and chapter reviews.
• All twelve Options chapters available in HTML online in the eBookPLUS.
studyON VCE Physics Units 1 and 2 is fully integrated with the student text. studyON is Jacaranda’s unique study, revision and exam preparation tool.

Students can rely on Jacaranda’s dedicated customer service and support.

This resource is a hard-copy student text that includes the eBookPLUS and studyON VCE Physics Units 1 and 2.

studyON for Units 1 and 2 is a comprehensive study, revision and exam preparation tool that delivers proven learning outcomes.

Features and benefits

Sit exams: VCAA exam-style questions along with marking guides. Students receive instant feedback and can track their results at a concept, topic or whole-course level.
Concepts: Concept summary screens provide concise, in-depth explanations supported by relevant examples.

Acknowledgements xii

UNIT 1 AREA OF STUDY 1

CHAPTER 1 Heat, temperature and internal energy 2

Measuring temperature 3

What is the difference between heat and temperature? 5

Explaining heat: the kinetic theory of matter 7

Thermal equilibrium 11

Laws of thermodynamics 12

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 12

First Law of Thermodynamics 12

Specific heat capacity 13

Latent heat and the kinetic particle model of matter 15

Evaporation 17

Chapter review 18

CHAPTER 2 Energy in transit 21

Transfer of energy 22

Conduction 22

Convection 23

Convection inside the Earth 24

Chapter review 29

CHAPTER 3 The physics of climate change 31

Energy in balance 32

How hot is the Earth? 32

Fossil fuel’s fingerprints 36

The Earth’s energy budget 37

Feedback 39

Climate models 40

Issues related to thermodynamics 42

Evaluating resources 43

Chapter review 44

AREA OF STUDY 2

CHAPTER 4 Current electricity 46

Electric circuits 47

Back to basics 47

Modelling an electric circuit 49

Current 50

Conventional current 50

Direct current 50

Alternating current 50

Measuring electric current 52

The hydraulic model of current 53

How rapidly do electrons travel through a conductor? 53

Voltage 54

The conventional point of view 54

Measuring potential difference or voltage drop 55

Energy transformed by a circuit 56

Power delivered by a circuit 56

Transposing formulae 57

Providing energy for the circuit 58

Resistance 59

Resistors 59

Ohm’s Law 61

Ohmic and non-ohmic devices 62

Heating effects of currents 63

Power and resistance 64

Chapter review 66

CHAPTER 5 Circuit analysis 69

What happens in an electric circuit? 70

Circuit diagrams 70

Circuit rules 71

Accounting for electrons 71

Conservation of electrical energy 72

Series and parallel circuits 72

Resistors in series 72

Resistors in parallel 73

Modelling resistors in parallel 74

Short circuits 76

Non-ohmic devices in series and parallel 77

Power in circuits 78

The voltage divider 78

Transducers and sensors 79

Potentiometers 81

Chapter review 82

CHAPTER 6 Using electricity 86

Electricity in the real world 87

Household use of electricity 87

Power ratings 89

Paying for electricity 90

A shocking experience 91

Resistance of the human body 92

The effect of current 92

The effect of current path 93

Time of exposure 93

In the event of a shock 93

Safety in household circuits 94

Fuses and circuit breakers 94

Earthing 96

Residual current device 97

Double insulation 97

Chapter review 98

AREA OF STUDY 3

CHAPTER 7 Radioactivity and the nucleus 99

Alpha decay 103

Beta decay 104

Neutrinos 106

Gamma decay 106

Half-life 107

Nuclear transformations 109

Discovering the structure of the atom 110

The stability of nuclei 111

What holds the nucleus together? 112

What makes the nucleus change? 113

Binding energy 113

Nuclear energy 114

Nuclear fission 114

Nuclear fusion 116

Chapter review 119

CHAPTER 8 Subatomic particles 122

The discovery of subatomic particles 123

Cosmic rays 123

Explaining the strong nuclear force 125

So many particles! 126

Why a quark model? 128

Quark model 129

Matter and light 130

Light from atoms 131

Chapter review 132

CHAPTER 9 The origin of atoms 133

A long story! 134

Discovering the universe of galaxies 134

The expansion of space 137

The Doppler effect 138

Using the Doppler effect on stars 138

Einstein and general relativity 139

Red shift revisited 139

The big bang 140

Looking back in time 143

The early universe 144

The birth of atoms 147

An overview 148

Chapter review 149

UNIT 2 AREA OF STUDY 1

CHAPTER 10 Analysing movement 152

Describing movement 153

Distance and displacement 153

Speed and velocity 154

Converting units of speed 155

Instantaneous speed and velocity — using graphs 157

Graphing motion: position versus time 157

Graphing motion: velocity versus time 160

Displacement from a velocity-versus-time graph 160

Acceleration 163

Acceleration from a velocity-versus-time graph 164

Area under an acceleration-versus-time graph 165

Graphing motion in a nutshell 166

Constant acceleration without graphs 168

Chapter review 172

CHAPTER 11 Forces in action 177

Describing a force 178

An attraction to the Earth 178

Friction — what a drag! 180

For better or worse 180

Compression and tension 181

Compression 182

The normal reaction force 182

Forces in pairs 182

Newton’s Third Law of Motion 183

Moving forward 185

The net force 186

Explaining motion: forces in and out of balance 187

Forces in two dimensions 189

Rolling downhill 190

Newton’s Second Law of Motion 192

Applying Newton’s second law in real life 193

Falling down 197

Newton’s second law and tension between connected bodies 198

Using Newton’s second law 201

Momentum and impulse 201

Impulse from a graph 203

Protecting that frail human body 205

Newton’s second law and seatbelts 206

Cars that crumple 207

Torque or turning effect of a force 207

Equilibrium or keeping still 209

Strategy for solving problems involving torque 209

Types of structures: cantilevers 211

Chapter review 212

CHAPTER 12 Mechanical interactions 220

Impulse and momentum in collisions 221

Modelling real collisions 223

The concept of energy 224

Getting down to work 225

Kinetic energy 226

Potential energy 228

Gravitational potential energy 228

Strain potential energy 230

Hooke’s Law 231

Conservation of total mechanical energy and efficiency 232

Power 235

Chapter review 237

AREA OF STUDY 3

CHAPTER 13 Practical investigations 243

What is the benefit to you? 244

What is involved? 244

Selecting a topic 245

Turning the topic into a good question 245

Submitting a research proposal 245

Keep a log 245

Variables 247

Making the most of a measurement 250

Repeated measurements 251

Finding patterns 253

Drawing a line of best fit 253

Using Microsoft Excel 254

Handling difficulties 254

Safety 254

Writing a report 255

Presenting as a digital poster 255

Advice on assembling a poster 256

Topics 256

AREA OF STUDY 2

CHAPTER 14 What are stars? 260

Chapter review 261

CHAPTER 15 Is there life beyond our solar system? 264

Chapter review 265

CHAPTER 16 How do forces act on the human body? 268

Chapter review 269

CHAPTER 17 How can AC electricity charge a DC device? 273

Chapter review 274

CHAPTER 18 How do heavy things fly? 279

Chapter review 280

CHAPTER 19 Are fission and fusion viable nuclear energy power sources? 282

Chapter review 283

CHAPTER 20 How is radiation used to maintain human health? 285

Chapter review 286

The Options chapters 14–25 can be found in your eBookPLUS. A copy of each chapter can be downloaded from the Resource panel. A sample of each chapter can be found in the print book following Chapter 13. Students will study only one Option chapter.

CHAPTER 21 How do particle accelerators and colliders work? 288

Chapter review 289

CHAPTER 22 How can human vision be enhanced? 290

Chapter review 291

CHAPTER 23 How do instruments make music? 294

Chapter review 295

CHAPTER 24 How can performance in ball games be improved? 300

Chapter review 301

CHAPTER 25 How does the human body use electricity? 304

Chapter review 305

Investigations 309

Appendix 1: Skill checks 323

Appendix 2: Periodic table of the elements 336

Appendix 3: Some useful astronomical data 338

Glossary 339

Index 349

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