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  • Psychology VCE Units 3&4 7E eBookPLUS & Print + StudyOn VCE Psychology Units 3&4 3E (Book Code)

Psychology VCE Units 3&4 7E eBookPLUS & Print + StudyOn VCE Psychology Units 3&4 3E (Book Code)

Psychology VCE Units 3&4 7E eBookPLUS & Print + StudyOn VCE Psychology Units 3&4 3E (Book Code)
Title information
Author/s
Grivas
ISBN13 9780730365471
Pub date November 2018
Pages 760
RRP $94.95
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Psychology VCE Units 3 & 4 7e Print & eBookPLUS + studyON
This print and digital title is the trusted market-leader to reflect the Study Design changes, along with content and layout updates to make it even more accessible for every student – helping them achieve exam success.

The latest edition of Psychology VCE Units 3 & 4 includes these key updates:
• Renowned author John Grivas, regarded for his authoritative and research-based approach, ensures quality content that helps students maximise their VCE success
• 100% coverage of the Study Design, so teachers can be confident that their resource has only examinable, relevant content
• Current, logical and sequenced coverage of research methods and key science skills guides students through this core component
• A wide range of learning activities (review, data analysis, media response, reflection) enhance students’ application of key skills while encouraging in-depth understanding
• Jacaranda’s unique exam preparation tool, studyON, is now included free and fully integrated to prepare students for their exams

An access code for the eBookPLUS comes free on the inside cover of your printed text, so you can make the most of both the print and digital formats.

Preface vii

Contents matrix: Chapter coverage of the study design xii

About eBookPLUS and studyON xvi

Acknowledgements xvii

Psychology — Research Methods

Chapter 1 Research methods in psychology 3

Defining psychology and its subject matter 4

Mental processes and behaviour 5

Psychology as a scientific study 6

Steps in psychological research 7

Step 1 Identify the research topic 7

Step 2 Formulate the research hypothesis 7

Step 3 Design the research 8

Step 4 Collect the data 9

Step 5 Analyse the data 9

Step 6 Interpret and evaluate the results 9

Step 7 Report the research and findings 10

Research methods 13

Sample and population 14

Research hypothesis 15

Experimental research 17

Advantages and limitations of experimental research 59

Cross-sectional studies 66

Advantages and limitations of cross-sectional studies 66

Case studies 69

Advantages and limitations of case studies 71

Observational studies 72

Advantages and limitations of observational studies 75

Self-reports 81

Advantages and limitations of self-reports 86

Types of data 89

Primary and secondary data 89

Qualitative and quantitative data 90

Organising, presenting and interpreting data 94

Descriptive statistics 94

Inferential statistics 103

Conclusions and generalisations 104

Reliability and validity in research 106

Reliability 106

Validity 106

Ethics in psychological research and reporting 110

National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 110

Role of ethics committees 112

Australian Privacy Principles 113

Role of the experimenter 113

Use of animals in psychological research 116

Reporting conventions 120

Written report 121

Poster report 122

Chapter summary 127

Key terms 129

Learning checklist 130

Chapter test 133

Unit 3 How Does Experience Affect Behaviour And Mental Processes?

Chapter 2 Nervous system functioning 143

Roles of different divisions 145

Central nervous system 145

Peripheral nervous system 149

Conscious and unconscious responses to sensory stimuli 158

The spinal reflex 159

Role of the neuron 162

Dendrites 163

Axon 163

Myelin 163

Axon terminals 164

Role of neurotransmitters 166

Neurotransmission as a lock-and-key process 168

How interference to neurotransmitter function can affect nervous system functioning 171

Parkinson’s disease 171

Chapter summary 180

Key terms 181

Learning checklist 182

Chapter test 183

Chapter 3 Stress as a psychobiological process 189

Eustress and distress 191

Sources of stress 193

Daily pressures 193

Life events 196

Acculturative stress 202

Major stressors 207

Catastrophes 209

Stress as a biological process 214

Fight–flight–freeze response 214

Role of cortisol 217

Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome 222

Strengths and limitations of Selye’s GAS 224

Stress as a psychological process 228

Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional Model of Stress and Coping 228

Strengths and limitations of the Lazarus and Folkman model 230

Strategies for coping with stress 233

Context-specific effectiveness 234

Coping flexibility 234

Approach and avoidance coping strategies 236

Exercise 240

Chapter summary 243

Key terms 244

Learning checklist 244

Chapter test 246

Chapter 4 Neural basis of learning and memory 251

Neural plasticity and changes to connections between neurons 253

Neural plasticity 253

Changes to connections between neurons 254

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression 255

Role of neurotransmitters and neurohormones 260

Role of glutamate in synaptic plasticity 261

Role of adrenaline in the consolidation of emotionally arousing experiences 261

Chapter summary 267

Key terms 268

Learning checklist 268

Chapter test 269

Chapter 5 Models to explain learning 273

Classical conditioning 276

Classical conditioning as a three-phase process 279

Stimulus generalisation 284

Stimulus discrimination 284

Extinction 285

Spontaneous recovery 285

The ‘Little Albert’ experiment 287

Operant conditioning 292

Operant conditioning as a three-phase model 293

Reinforcers 298

Punishment 302

Stimulus generalisation 306

Stimulus discrimination 306

Extinction 307

Spontaneous recovery 307

Comparing classical and operant conditioning 308

Observational learning 312

Observational learning processes 315

Bandura’s experiments with children 318

Chapter summary 322

Key terms 323

Learning checklist 323

Chapter test 325

Chapter 6 Process of memory 331

Atkinson–Shiffrin’s multi-store model of memory 333

Sensory memory 335

Short-term memory (STM) 343

Long-term memory (LTM) 348

Brain regions involved in the storage of long-term memories 356

Roles of the cerebral cortex 356

Roles of the hippocampus 357

Roles of the amygdala 359

Roles of the cerebellum 361

Chapter summary 364

Key terms 365

Learning checklist 365

Chapter test 367

Chapter 7 Reliability of memory 371

Methods to retrieve information from memory or demonstrate the existence of information in memory 373

Recall 373

Recognition 373

Relearning 375

Reconstruction 377

Fallibility of memory reconstruction 379

Research by Loftus 380

Effects of brain trauma on memory 385

Anterograde amnesia 385

Brain surgery 388

Alzheimer’s disease 397

Factors influencing ability and inability to remember 403

Context and state dependent cues 403

Maintenance and elaborative rehearsal 409

Serial position effect 412

Chapter summary 417

Key terms 418

Learning checklist 418

Chapter test 420

Unit 4 How Is Wellbeing Developed and Maintained?

Chapter 8 Nature of consciousness 429

Consciousness as a psychological construct 430

Consciousness varies along a continuum of awareness 432

Normal waking consciousness and altered states of consciousness 436

Role of attention 437

Methods used to study consciousness 440

Measurement of physiological responses 440

Measurement of speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks 450

Subjective reporting of consciousness — sleep diaries 452

Video monitoring 452

Changes in psychological state due to levels of awareness 454

Content limitations 454

Controlled and automatic processes 454

Perceptual and cognitive distortions 456

Emotional awareness 456

Self-control 457

Time orientation 458

Comparing effects of one night of full sleep deprivation versus legal blood-alcohol concentrations 460

Chapter summary 465

Key terms 466

Learning checklist 466

Chapter test 468

Chapter 9 Sleep 473

Sleep and biological rhythms 475

Circadian rhythms 475

Ultradian rhythms 478

NREM and REM sleep 480

NREM sleep 481

REM sleep 483

Theories of the purpose and function of sleep 489

Restoration theory 489

Evolutionary (circadian) theory 492

Differences in sleep patterns across the lifespan 495

Newborns and infants 496

Children 497

Adolescents 497

Adults 497

Chapter summary 500

Key terms 501

Learning checklist 501

Chapter test 503

Chapter 10 Sleep disturbances 511

Dyssomnias and parasomnias 513

Dyssomnias 514

Parasomnias 518

Circadian rhythm phase disorders 525

Sleep–wake cycle shift in adolescence 526

Shift work 529

Jet lag 532

Jet lag effects 533

Effects of partial sleep deprivation 535

Affective functioning 536

Behavioural functioning 537

Cognitive functioning 538

Interventions to treat sleep disorders 542

Cognitive behavioural therapy 542

Bright light therapy 547

Chapter summary 550

Key terms 551

Learning checklist 551

Chapter test 553

Chapter 11 Mental health 559

Mental health as a continuum 561

Mental health as a product of internal and external factors 564

Typical characteristics of a mentally healthy person 566

High level of functioning 566

High levels of social and emotional wellbeing 568

Resilience to life stressors 570

Ethical implications in mental health study and research 571

Informed consent 572

Use of placebo treatments 575

Chapter summary 579

Key terms 580

Learning checklist 580

Chapter test 581

Chapter 12 Mental disorder 585

4P factor model 587

The four factors 589

Biological risk factors 590

Genetic vulnerability 590

Poor response to medication due to genetic factors 592

Poor sleep 595

Substance use 595

Psychological risk factors 598

Rumination 598

Impaired reasoning and memory 599

Stress 603

Poor self-efficacy 604

Social risk factors 607

Disorganised attachment 607

Loss of a significant relationship 609

Role of stigma as a barrier to accessing treatment 610

Cumulative risk 614

Chapter summary 616

Key terms 617

Learning checklist 617

Chapter test 619

Chapter 13 Specific phobia 627

Stress, anxiety and phobia 629

Specific phobia 632

Factors contributing to the development of a specific phobia 634

Biological factors 636

Psychological factors 639

Social factors 644

Evidence-based interventions in the treatment of specific phobia 646

Biological interventions 647

Relaxation techniques 649

Psychological interventions 651

Social interventions 657

Chapter summary 662

Key terms 663

Learning checklist 663

Chapter test 665

Chapter 14 Maintenance of mental health 671

Resilience 672

Biological protective factors 675

Adequate diet 675

Adequate sleep 677

Psychological protective factors 678

Cognitive behavioural strategies 678

Social protective factors 682

Support from family, friends and community 682

Transtheoretical model of behaviour change 685

Pre-contemplation stage 686

Contemplation stage 687

Preparation stage 688

Action stage 688

Maintenance stage 689

Strengths and limitations of the transtheoretical model 690

Chapter summary 693

Key terms 694

Learning checklist 694

Chapter test 695

Answers 700

Glossary 701

References 715

Index 734

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